Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves
Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass
At boiling point at 1.013 bar
in standard conditions (1,013 bar, 15°C)
Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare
Oxygen is used for oxygen masks, in aeronautics for civil and military planes.Aeronautics
Oxygen is used for laser cutting and oxycutting.Automotive
Oxygen improves yield of a large number of petrochemical processes: chemical oxidation reactions such as the production of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, etc ; air-based processes debottlenecking; synthesis gas (dihydrogen/carbon monoxide) production.Chemicals
Oxygen is used to oxidize materials such as silicon to silicon dioxide. Oxygen is used to ash photoresists. It allows to achieve Chemical Vapor Deposition of oxides (CVD).Electronic components
Oxygen enhances waste water treatment (sludges, odors, energy, etc.). It also improves waste treatment, decreasing the amount of incineration emissions. It is also used in ozone production for oxidations or cleaning.Waste & Water management
Oxygen is used to oxygenate fish-breeding tanks. It maintains colour of fresh red meat products with Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP). Oxygen prevents anaerobic conditions of fresh fish and seafood products with Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP).Food
Oxygen limits nitrogen oxides emission through oxycombustion processes.Glass
Drug: oxygen is used to correct hypoxic (inadequate tissue oxygenation) related diseases.Hospital care
Oxygen is used in calibration gas mixtures for petrochemical industry, environmental emission monitoring, industrial hygiene monitors and trace impurity analyzers. It is also used to measure calorimetric properties of hydrocarbons or coal and of oxidation reactions.Laboratories & Research Centers
Oxygen is used at blast furnace, basic oxygen furnace, electric arc furnace in iron and steel making. It is also used in smelters and converters in the non-ferrous industry.Metal
Oxygen improves iron, steel and non-ferrous metals production processes : decarburization of hot metals, enrichment of blast furnace air, primary production, secondary melting, etc. It is also used for laser cutting and oxycutting.Metal fabrication
Oxygen enriches regeneration air of Fluid Cracking Catalytic units (FCC) and Sulfur Removal Unit (SRU) in refinery.Oil & Gas
Oxygen participates in bleaching operations to obtain a more environmentally friendly process, essentially during the delignifying step.
Liquid oxygen is used as propellant for rockets launch.Space
Oxygen participates to chemical synthesis. It is used to enrich air during fermentation, as well as to treat wastewater. Oxygen is also used to flame seal glass ampuls for finished products.Pharma & Biotech
Information to safely use this molecule
Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.
Oxygen was discovered in 1774 by Joseph Priestley. In 1777, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier renamed "vital air" into "oxygene", from the Greek "-ὀξύς" (oxys), "acid" and "-γενής" (-genes), "producer", literally "begetter". It is the most abundant element on the earth’s surface. For example, oxygen makes up (by weight) 46 % of the Earth's crust (oxides, silicates, etc.), 89 % of the Earth's water and 62 % of the human body (in the form of molecules). In its most well-known form, it constitutes 21 % of the atmosphere. It is a tasteless, odorless and colorless gas, essential to life.