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Hydrogen chloride
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Hydrogen chloride
Click and drag to move the molecule
HCl
Hydrogen chloride

Physical Properties

Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves

  • General properties
  • Solid phase
  • Liquid Phase
  • Gas Phase
(P)
log(P)
Download
  • Molecular weight
    36.461
    g/mol
  • Content in air
    /

Critical Point

  • Temperature
    51.5
    °C
    124.7 °F 324.65 K
  • Pressure
    83.564
    bar
    8.3564E6 pa 1211.9929 lbf/in2 82.4713 Atm 8356.4 Kpa 6.2678E4 mmHg
  • Density
    450.136
    kg/m³
    28.101 lb/ft³

Triple Point

  • Temperature
    - 114.18
    °C
    - 173.524 °F 158.97 K
  • Pressure
    1.3522E-1
    bar
    1.3522E4 pa 1.9612 lbf/in2 1.3345E-1 Atm 13.5219 Kpa 101.4229 mmHg
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Melting point
    - 114.18
    °C
    - 173.524 °F 158.97 K
  • Latent heat of fusion (at melting point)
    54.853
    kJ/kg
    23.5984 Btu/lb 13.1102 kcal/kg
  • Solid density
    /
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Liquid density
    1192.98
    kg/m³
    74.4751 lb/ft³
  • Boiling point
    - 85
    °C
    - 121 °F 188.15 K
  • Latent heat of vaporization (at boiling point)
    448.87
    kJ/kg
    193.1089 Btu/lb 107.2825 kcal/kg
Pressure1.013barTemperature
  • Compressibility factor Z
    /
    /
    /
  • Cp/Cv ratio γ
    /
    /
    /
  • Dynamic viscosity
    1.3405E-4
    Po
    13.4051 µPa.s 1.3405E-5 PA.S 9.0078E-6 lb/ft/s
    1.4164E-4
    Po
    14.1639 µPa.s 1.4164E-5 PA.S 9.5177E-6 lb/ft/s
    1.4666E-4
    Po
    14.6655 µPa.s 1.4666E-5 PA.S 9.8548E-6 lb/ft/s
  • Gas density at boiling point
    /
    /
    /
  • Gas density
    /
    /
    /
  • Heat capacity at constant pressure Cp
    /
    /
    /
  • Heat capacity at constant volume Cv
    /
    /
    /
  • Liquid (at boiling point)/gas equivalent
    /
    764.73
    mol/mol
    764.73
    mol/mol
  • Solubility in water
    /
    /
    /
  • Specific gravity
    1.27
    1.27
    1.27
  • Specific volume
    /
    /
    /
  • Thermal conductivity
    13.158
    mW/m∙K
    7.6076E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.1321E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.1448E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.3158E-2 W/(m∙K)
    13.924
    mW/m∙K
    8.0505E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.1981E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.3279E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.3924E-2 W/(m∙K)
    14.43
    mW/m∙K
    8.3431E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.2416E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.4489E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.443E-2 W/(m∙K)
  • Vapor pressure
    25.6287
    bar
    2.5629E6 pa 371.7127 lbf/in2 25.2936 Atm 2562.87 Kpa 1.9223E4 mmHg
    37.3556
    bar
    3.7356E6 pa 541.797 lbf/in2 36.8671 Atm 3735.56 Kpa 2.8019E4 mmHg
    47.2216
    bar
    4.7222E6 pa 684.8911 lbf/in2 46.6041 Atm 4722.16 Kpa 3.5419E4 mmHg
HCl
Hydrogen chloride

Liquid / Gas Volumes

Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass

Liquid Phase

At boiling point at 1.013 bar

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)

Gas Phase

at 1.013 bar and boiling point

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)
HCl
Hydrogen chloride

Applications

Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare

Chemicals

The chemicals industry uses hydrogen chloride to produce a large variety of organic chlorinated compounds. Chlorinated metals (such as aluminium or silicon chlorides) are produced with hydrogen chloride.

Chemicals

Laboratories & Research Centers

Hydrogen chloride is used in calibration gas mixtures for environmental emission monitoring.

Laboratories & Research Centers

Metal fabrication

Hydrometallurgy processes use hydrogen chloride to enhance the separation coefficient of ores. Hot galvanizing process can use hydrogen chloride.

Metal fabrication

Other

Used with xenon in "excimer" lasers, hydrogen chloride can produce wavelengths which vary as a function of operating conditions.

Electronic components

Hydrogen chloride is used in semiconductor fabrication for etching of native oxide, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) reactor cleaning or moisture getter.

Electronic components
HCl
Hydrogen chloride

Safety

Information to safely use this molecule

  • Major hazards
  • Material compatibility
  • GHS04
    Gas under pressure
  • GHS05
    Corrosive
  • GHS06
    Acute Toxicity

Threshold of toxicity

  • VME
    /
  • VLE
    5
    ppm
    or 7.5
    mg/m3
  • ILV-8h
    5
    ppm
    or 8
    mg/m3
  • ILV 15mn
    10
    ppm
    or 15
    mg/m3
  • TLV-TWA (USA)
    /
  • TLV-STEL (USA)
    /

Odor

Pungent and suffocating

Metals

  • Aluminium
    Not recommended
  • Brass
    Not recommended
  • Monel
    Satisfactory
  • Copper
    Satisfactory
  • Ferritic Steel
    Satisfactory
  • Stainless steel
    Satisfactory
  • Zinc
    Not recommended
  • Titanium
    no data

Plastics

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinyl chloride
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polycarbonate
    Not recommended
  • Polyamide
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Polypropylene
    no data

Elastomers

  • Buthyl (isobutene- isoprene) rubber
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Nitrile rubber
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Chloroprene
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
    Satisfactory
  • Silicon
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Perfluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Fluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Not recommended
  • Neoprene
    Not recommended
  • Polyurethane
    Not recommended
  • Ethylene-Propylene
    Satisfactory

Lubricants

  • Hydrocarbon based lubricant
    Not recommended
    contamination of the material
  • Fluorocarbon based lubricant
    Not recommended
    contamination of the material

Materials compatibility

Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.

HCl
Hydrogen chloride

Learn More

General information

More information

Joseph Priestley prepared hydrogen chloride in 1772 and, in 1818, Humphry Davy established that it is composed of hydrogen and chlorine.