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Propane
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Propane
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C3H8
Propane

Physical Properties

Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves

  • General properties
  • Solid phase
  • Liquid Phase
  • Gas Phase
(P)
log(P)
Download
  • Molecular weight
    44.096
    g/mol
  • Content in air
    /

Critical Point

  • Temperature
    96.74
    °C
    206.132 °F 369.89 K
  • Pressure
    42.51
    bar
    4.251E6 pa 616.5552 lbf/in2 41.9541 Atm 4251 Kpa 3.1885E4 mmHg
  • Density
    220.48
    kg/m³
    13.7641 lb/ft³

Triple Point

  • Temperature
    - 187.62
    °C
    - 305.716 °F 85.53 K
  • Pressure
    1.7E-9
    bar
    1.7E-4 pa 2.4656E-8 lbf/in2 1.6778E-9 Atm 1.7E-7 Kpa 1.2751E-6 mmHg
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Melting point
    - 187.68
    °C
    - 305.824 °F 85.47 K
  • Latent heat of fusion (at melting point)
    79.917
    kJ/kg
    34.3812 Btu/lb 19.1006 kcal/kg
  • Solid density
    /
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Liquid density
    580.88
    kg/m³
    36.2631 lb/ft³
  • Boiling point
    - 42.11
    °C
    - 43.798 °F 231.04 K
  • Latent heat of vaporization (at boiling point)
    425.59
    kJ/kg
    183.0936 Btu/lb 101.7185 kcal/kg
Pressure1.013barTemperature
  • Compressibility factor Z
    9.7853E-1
    9.8194E-1
    9.8381E-1
  • Cp/Cv ratio γ
    1.1504
    1.1416
    1.1364
  • Dynamic viscosity
    7.4692E-5
    Po
    7.4692 µPa.s 7.4692E-6 PA.S 5.0191E-6 lb/ft/s
    7.8764E-5
    Po
    7.8764 µPa.s 7.8764E-6 PA.S 5.2927E-6 lb/ft/s
    8.1463E-5
    Po
    8.1463 µPa.s 8.1463E-6 PA.S 5.4741E-6 lb/ft/s
  • Gas density at boiling point
    2.417
    kg/m³
    1.5089E-1 lb/ft³
    2.417
    kg/m³
    1.5089E-1 lb/ft³
    2.417
    kg/m³
    1.5089E-1 lb/ft³
  • Gas density
    2.01
    kg/m³
    1.2548E-1 lb/ft³
    1.8988
    kg/m³
    1.1854E-1 lb/ft³
    1.8316
    kg/m³
    1.1434E-1 lb/ft³
  • Heat capacity at constant pressure Cp
    1.5841
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.7861E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1584.089 J/kg∙K 3.7861E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.6435
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.9281E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1643.505 J/kg∙K 3.9281E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.6847
    kJ/(kg.K)
    4.0265E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1684.688 J/kg∙K 4.0265E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Heat capacity at constant volume Cv
    1.377
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.2912E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1377.041 J/kg∙K 3.2912E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.4396
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.4408E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1439.609 J/kg∙K 3.4408E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.4825
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.5432E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1482.47 J/kg∙K 3.5432E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Liquid (at boiling point)/gas equivalent
    289
    mol/mol
    305.92
    mol/mol
    317.14
    mol/mol
  • Solubility in water
    /
    3.813E-5
    mol/mol
    2.732E-5
    mol/mol
  • Specific gravity
    1.55
    1.55
    1.55
  • Specific volume
    4.975E-1
    m³/kg
    7.9692 ft³/lb
    5.267E-1
    m³/kg
    8.4369 ft³/lb
    5.46E-1
    m³/kg
    8.7461 ft³/lb
  • Thermal conductivity
    15.65
    mW/m∙K
    9.0484E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.3466E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.7404E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.565E-2 W/(m∙K)
    17.224
    mW/m∙K
    9.9585E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.482E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 4.1166E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.7224E-2 W/(m∙K)
    18.31
    mW/m∙K
    1.0586E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.5754E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 4.3762E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.831E-2 W/(m∙K)
  • Vapor pressure
    4.749
    bar
    4.749E5 pa 68.8784 lbf/in2 4.6869 Atm 474.9 Kpa 3562.0528 mmHg
    7.3269
    bar
    7.3269E5 pa 106.2677 lbf/in2 7.2311 Atm 732.69 Kpa 5495.6421 mmHg
    9.5326
    bar
    9.5326E5 pa 138.2586 lbf/in2 9.4079 Atm 953.26 Kpa 7150.0578 mmHg
C3H8
Propane

Liquid / Gas Volumes

Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass

Liquid Phase

At boiling point at 1.013 bar

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)

Gas Phase

at 1.013 bar and boiling point

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)
C3H8
Propane

Applications

Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare

Laboratories & Research Centers

Propane is used in calibration for environmental emission monitoring, industrial hygiene monitors and trace impurity analyzers, particularly for total hydrocarbons measurements (THC).

Laboratories & Research Centers

Metal fabrication

Propane is used in oxycutting.

Metal fabrication
C3H8
Propane

Safety

Information to safely use this molecule

  • Major hazards
  • Material compatibility
  • GHS02
    Flammable

Autoignition Temperature in Air at Patm and Flammability Limits in Air at Patm and 293.15 K (except if the temperature is indicated)

  • Europe (according to EN1839 for Limits and EN 14522 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      459
      °C
      858.2 °F 732.15 K
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      1.7
      vol/%
      1.7E4 ppm 1.7E4 ppm 1.7E-2 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      10.8
      vol/%
      1.08E5 ppm 1.08E5 ppm 1.08E-1 vol/vol
  • US (according to NFPA for Limits and ASTM E659 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      450
      °C
      842 °F 723.15 K
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      2.1
      vol/%
      2.1E4 ppm 2.1E4 ppm 2.1E-2 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      9.5
      vol/%
      9.5E4 ppm 9.5E4 ppm 9.5E-2 vol/vol

Threshold of toxicity

  • VME
    /
  • VLE
    /
  • ILV-8h
    /
  • ILV 15mn
    /
  • TLV-TWA (USA)
    2500
    ppm
    2500 ppm 0.25 vol/% 2.5E-3 vol/vol
  • TLV-STEL (USA)
    /

Odor

Faintly disagreeable

Metals

  • Aluminium
    Satisfactory
  • Brass
    Satisfactory
  • Monel
    Satisfactory
  • Copper
    Satisfactory
  • Ferritic Steel
    Satisfactory
  • Stainless steel
    Satisfactory
  • Zinc
    Satisfactory
  • Titanium
    no data

Plastics

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinyl chloride
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polycarbonate
    Not recommended
  • Polyamide
    Satisfactory
  • Polypropylene
    Satisfactory

Elastomers

  • Buthyl (isobutene- isoprene) rubber
    Not recommended
    significant swelling
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Chloroprene
    Not recommended
    significant swelling
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
    Satisfactory
  • Silicon
    Not recommended
    significant swelling and modification of the mechanical properties
  • Perfluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Fluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Neoprene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyurethane
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene-Propylene
    Not recommended
    significant swelling and modification of the mechanical properties

Lubricants

  • Hydrocarbon based lubricant
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Fluorocarbon based lubricant
    Satisfactory

Materials compatibility

Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.

C3H8
Propane

Learn More

General information

More information

Propane was first identified as a volatile component in gasoline by Walter O. Snelling in 1910. The "prop-" root found in "propane" and names of other compounds with three-carbon chains was derived from "propionic acid".