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Nitrogen
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Nitrogen
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N2
Nitrogen

Physical Properties

Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves

  • General properties
  • Solid phase
  • Liquid Phase
  • Gas Phase
(P)
log(P)
Download
  • Molecular weight
    28.013
    g/mol
  • Content in air
    7.8084E5
    ppm
    7.8084E5 ppm 78.084 vol/% 7.8084E-1 vol/vol

Critical Point

  • Temperature
    - 146.96
    °C
    - 232.528 °F 126.19 K
  • Pressure
    33.958
    bar
    3.3958E6 pa 492.519 lbf/in2 33.5139 Atm 3395.8 Kpa 2.5471E4 mmHg
  • Density
    313.3
    kg/m³
    19.5586 lb/ft³

Triple Point

  • Temperature
    - 210
    °C
    - 346 °F 63.15 K
  • Pressure
    1.252E-1
    bar
    1.252E4 pa 1.8159 lbf/in2 1.2356E-1 Atm 12.52 Kpa 93.908 mmHg
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Melting point
    - 210
    °C
    - 346 °F 63.15 K
  • Latent heat of fusion (at melting point)
    25.702
    kJ/kg
    11.0573 Btu/lb 6.1429 kcal/kg
  • Solid density
    /
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Liquid density
    806.11
    kg/m³
    50.3237 lb/ft³
  • Boiling point
    - 195.8
    °C
    - 320.44 °F 77.35 K
  • Latent heat of vaporization (at boiling point)
    199.18
    kJ/kg
    85.6895 Btu/lb 47.6052 kcal/kg
Pressure1.013barTemperature
  • Compressibility factor Z
    9.9954E-1
    9.9971E-1
    9.998E-1
  • Cp/Cv ratio γ
    1.4019
    1.4015
    1.4013
  • Dynamic viscosity
    1.6629E-4
    Po
    16.629 µPa.s 1.6629E-5 PA.S 1.1174E-5 lb/ft/s
    1.7339E-4
    Po
    17.339 µPa.s 1.7339E-5 PA.S 1.1651E-5 lb/ft/s
    1.7805E-4
    Po
    17.805 µPa.s 1.7805E-5 PA.S 1.1964E-5 lb/ft/s
  • Gas density at boiling point
    4.61
    kg/m³
    2.8779E-1 lb/ft³
    4.61
    kg/m³
    2.8779E-1 lb/ft³
    4.61
    kg/m³
    2.8779E-1 lb/ft³
  • Gas density
    1.2501
    kg/m³
    7.8041E-2 lb/ft³
    1.1848
    kg/m³
    7.3964E-2 lb/ft³
    1.145
    kg/m³
    7.148E-2 lb/ft³
  • Heat capacity at constant pressure Cp
    1.0414
    kJ/(kg.K)
    2.4891E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1041.445 J/kg∙K 2.4891E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.0414
    kJ/(kg.K)
    2.4889E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1041.374 J/kg∙K 2.4889E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.0414
    kJ/(kg.K)
    2.4889E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1041.374 J/kg∙K 2.4889E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Heat capacity at constant volume Cv
    7.4291E-1
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.7756E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 742.905 J/kg∙K 1.7756E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    7.4301E-1
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.7758E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 743.012 J/kg∙K 1.7758E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    7.4316E-1
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.7762E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 743.155 J/kg∙K 1.7762E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Liquid (at boiling point)/gas equivalent
    644.84
    mol/mol
    680.38
    mol/mol
    704.03
    mol/mol
  • Solubility in water
    /
    1.386E-5
    mol/mol
    1.183E-5
    mol/mol
  • Specific gravity
    0.97
    0.97
    0.97
  • Specific volume
    0.8
    m³/kg
    12.8148 ft³/lb
    8.44E-1
    m³/kg
    13.5196 ft³/lb
    8.734E-1
    m³/kg
    13.9905 ft³/lb
  • Thermal conductivity
    24.001
    mW/m∙K
    1.3877E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 2.0651E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 5.7364E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 2.4001E-2 W/(m∙K)
    25.108
    mW/m∙K
    1.4517E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 2.1603E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 6.001E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 2.5108E-2 W/(m∙K)
    25.835
    mW/m∙K
    1.4937E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 2.2229E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 6.1747E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 2.5835E-2 W/(m∙K)
  • Vapor pressure
    /
    /
    /
N2
Nitrogen

Liquid / Gas Volumes

Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass

Liquid Phase

At boiling point at 1.013 bar

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)

Gas Phase

at 1.013 bar and boiling point

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)
N2
Nitrogen

Applications

Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare

Aeronautics

Nitrogen is used for heat treatment, welding or laser cutting. Nitrogen-filled tires have an increased lifetime.

Aeronautics

Automotive

Nitrogen is used for heat treatment, welding or laser cutting. It also used to produce car pieces with gas assisted injection moulding process. Nitrogen-filled tires have an increased lifetime.

Automotive

Chemicals

Nitrogen is used directly in chemical process as carrier gas, fluidisation agent or for temperature control and catalyst preparation. It also takes part in several applications in a petrochemical site: for blanketing, drying, purging, stirring, etc.

Chemicals

Electronic components

Nitrogen creates inert atmosphere to avoid oxidation during the soldering process with wave soldering or reflow technology. Nitrogen is used as a carrier gas for the protection of impurities and oxidation during the production of semiconductors and welding. It provides an inert atmosphere adapted to the waiting phases during the production of equipment and for the wafers containers during their transportation. It enables the dilution of reagent derivatives rejected during the fabrication of semiconductors, until the security threshold is reached. Nitrogen is used to chill wafers without contamination after a treatment.

Electronic components

Food

Nitrogen is used to chill, freeze or control temperature of food products. It allows to control temperature during transportation and distribution with indirect liquid nitrogen injection. Nitrogen preserves and protects foods with Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) to minimize oxidation, micro-organism growth or package collapse. It is also used to protect liquid foods from oxidation through inerting, pressure transfer and deoxigenation.

Food

Glass

Combined with hydrogen, nitrogen creates a reductive atmosphere over the tin bath in glass production process.

Glass

Hospital care

Medical device: nitrogen is used for cryo-dermatology and cryo-preservation. It is also a component of inhaled gaseous mixtures for pulmonary function test.

Hospital care

Laboratories & Research Centers

Nitrogen is a carrier gas in gas chromatography for various industrial and hospital analyses and quality control. It is also a balance gas of the calibration gas mixtures for environmental monitoring systems and industrial hygiene gas mixtures. Nitrogen is used to purge, dry or blanket analyzers or chemical reactors (under gaseous state or at low temperature liquid state).

Laboratories & Research Centers

Metal fabrication

Nitrogen is used for heat treatment and laser cutting.

Metal fabrication

Metal

Nitrogen is used for inerting and stirring in many applications.

Metal

Oil & Gas

For storage tanks and pipeline, nitrogen protects products and facilities (blanketing and inerting). It is also used in operations of snubbing/pigging, pipeline purging, cleanouts and leak test. For overbalanced drilling, nitrogen is used for gas lifting, fracking or fracturing.

Oil & Gas

Other

Nitrogen is used in heat treatment of various metals. It is a component of the mixtures used in carbon dioxide lasers. It is also used for pneumatic transportation of powdered flammable materials (charcoal).

Pharma & Biotech

Nitrogen is used for inerting, cryo-grinding, lyophilisation, drying, liquid phase transfer of products or synthesis intermediates. It is also used for cryo-condensation of waste gases and low temperature storage.

Pharma & Biotech
N2
Nitrogen

Safety

Information to safely use this molecule

  • Major hazards
  • Material compatibility
  • GHS04
    Gas under pressure

Other Hazards

Asphyxiant in high concentrations

Metals

  • Aluminium
    Satisfactory
  • Brass
    Satisfactory
  • Monel
    Satisfactory
  • Copper
    Satisfactory
  • Ferritic Steel
    Satisfactory
  • Stainless steel
    Satisfactory
  • Zinc
    Satisfactory
  • Titanium
    no data

Plastics

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinyl chloride
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polycarbonate
    Satisfactory
  • Polyamide
    Satisfactory
  • Polypropylene
    Satisfactory

Elastomers

  • Buthyl (isobutene- isoprene) rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Chloroprene
    Satisfactory
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
    Satisfactory
  • Silicon
    Satisfactory
  • Perfluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Fluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Neoprene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyurethane
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene-Propylene
    Satisfactory

Lubricants

  • Hydrocarbon based lubricant
    Satisfactory
  • Fluorocarbon based lubricant
    Satisfactory

Materials compatibility

Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.

N2
Nitrogen

Learn More

General information

More information

Nitrogen was discovered in 1772 by Daniel Rutherford who called it "noxious air" or "fixed air". Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier isolated it in 1786. The name nitrogen comes from Latin "nitrogenium", where "nitrum" (from Greek nitron) means "saltpetre", and "genes" means "forming". Nitrogen is an inert gas with many industrial applications. It is liquefied by cooling at -320.8 °F (-196 °C/77.15 K). It is mainly found in the atmosphere, where it accounts for 78 % by volume of the air we breath. But nitrogen is also found in the Earth's crust (to a limited extent: in the form of nitrates, etc.), in organic form (in the living or dead plants and organisms), in mineral form (ammonia), thus contributing to soil fertility. In gaseous form, nitrogen is a neutral and colorless gas.