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Deuterium
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Deuterium
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D2
Deuterium

Physical Properties

Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves

  • General properties
  • Solid phase
  • Liquid Phase
  • Gas Phase
(P)
log(P)
Download
  • Molecular weight
    4.028
    g/mol
  • Content in air
    /

Critical Point

  • Temperature
    - 234.81
    °C
    - 390.658 °F 38.34 K
  • Pressure
    16.653
    bar
    1.6653E6 pa 241.5312 lbf/in2 16.4352 Atm 1665.3 Kpa 1.2491E4 mmHg
  • Density
    69.797
    kg/m³
    4.3573 lb/ft³

Triple Point

  • Temperature
    - 254.44
    °C
    - 425.992 °F 18.71 K
  • Pressure
    1.707E-1
    bar
    1.707E4 pa 2.4758 lbf/in2 1.6847E-1 Atm 17.07 Kpa 128.0359 mmHg
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Melting point
    - 254.42
    °C
    - 425.956 °F 18.73 K
  • Latent heat of fusion (at melting point)
    49.305
    kJ/kg
    21.2116 Btu/lb 11.7842 kcal/kg
  • Solid density
    /
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Liquid density
    163.83
    kg/m³
    10.2275 lb/ft³
  • Boiling point
    - 249.84
    °C
    - 417.712 °F 23.31 K
  • Latent heat of vaporization (at boiling point)
    322.215
    kJ/kg
    138.6205 Btu/lb 77.0112 kcal/kg
Pressure1.013barTemperature
  • Compressibility factor Z
    1.0006
    1.0006
    1.0006
  • Cp/Cv ratio γ
    1.3983
    1.3982
    1.3981
  • Dynamic viscosity
    1.1823E-4
    Po
    11.823 µPa.s 1.1823E-5 PA.S 7.9447E-6 lb/ft/s
    1.2267E-4
    Po
    12.267 µPa.s 1.2267E-5 PA.S 8.2431E-6 lb/ft/s
    1.256E-4
    Po
    12.56 µPa.s 1.256E-5 PA.S 8.44E-6 lb/ft/s
  • Gas density at boiling point
    2.105
    kg/m³
    1.3141E-1 lb/ft³
    2.105
    kg/m³
    1.3141E-1 lb/ft³
    2.105
    kg/m³
    1.3141E-1 lb/ft³
  • Gas density
    1.796E-1
    kg/m³
    1.1212E-2 lb/ft³
    1.702E-1
    kg/m³
    1.0625E-2 lb/ft³
    1.645E-1
    kg/m³
    1.0269E-2 lb/ft³
  • Heat capacity at constant pressure Cp
    7.2499
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.7328 BTU/lb∙°F 7249.9 J/kg∙K 1.7328 kcal/kg∙K
    7.2509
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.733 BTU/lb∙°F 7250.9 J/kg∙K 1.733 kcal/kg∙K
    7.2514
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.7331 BTU/lb∙°F 7251.4 J/kg∙K 1.7331 kcal/kg∙K
  • Heat capacity at constant volume Cv
    5.1847
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.2392 BTU/lb∙°F 5184.7 J/kg∙K 1.2392 kcal/kg∙K
    5.1859
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.2395 BTU/lb∙°F 5185.9 J/kg∙K 1.2395 kcal/kg∙K
    5.1865
    kJ/(kg.K)
    1.2396 BTU/lb∙°F 5186.5 J/kg∙K 1.2396 kcal/kg∙K
  • Liquid (at boiling point)/gas equivalent
    912.19
    mol/mol
    962.57
    mol/mol
    995.93
    mol/mol
  • Solubility in water
    /
    1.595E-5
    mol/mol
    1.46E-5
    mol/mol
  • Specific gravity
    /
    /
    /
  • Specific volume
    5.5691
    m³/kg
    89.2084 ft³/lb
    5.8748
    m³/kg
    94.1052 ft³/lb
    6.0786
    m³/kg
    97.3698 ft³/lb
  • Thermal conductivity
    130.07
    mW/m∙K
    7.5203E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.1192 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.1087E-4 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.3007E-1 W/(m∙K)
    135.04
    mW/m∙K
    7.8077E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.1619 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.2275E-4 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.3504E-1 W/(m∙K)
    138.2
    mW/m∙K
    7.9904E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.1891 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.3031E-4 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.382E-1 W/(m∙K)
  • Vapor pressure
    /
    /
    /
D2
Deuterium

Liquid / Gas Volumes

Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass

Liquid Phase

At boiling point at 1.013 bar

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)

Gas Phase

at 1.013 bar and boiling point

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)
D2
Deuterium

Applications

Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare

Electronic components

In the electronics industry, deuterium is used in substitution to hydrogen in the anneal and sinter of semiconductors, flat screens and solar panels with silicium base.

Electronic components

Other

Deuterium is used in nuclear fusion reactions.

Pharma & Biotech

Deuterium is used to prepare deuterated compounds in chemistry and biochemistry. These tracer molecules allow to study reaction rates and mechanisms of the reaction.

Pharma & Biotech
D2
Deuterium

Safety

Information to safely use this molecule

  • Major hazards
  • Material compatibility
  • GHS02
    Flammable

Autoignition Temperature in Air at Patm and Flammability Limits in Air at Patm and 293.15 K (except if the temperature is indicated)

  • Europe (according to EN1839 for Limits and EN 14522 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      560
      °C
      1040 °F 833.15 K
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      6.7
      vol/%
      6.7E4 ppm 6.7E4 ppm 6.7E-2 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      79.6
      vol/%
      7.96E5 ppm 7.96E5 ppm 7.96E-1 vol/vol
  • US (according to NFPA for Limits and ASTM E659 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      /
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      5
      vol/%
      5.E4 ppm 5.E4 ppm 0.05 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      75
      vol/%
      7.5E5 ppm 7.5E5 ppm 0.75 vol/vol

Odor

none

Metals

  • Aluminium
    Satisfactory
  • Brass
    Satisfactory
  • Monel
    Satisfactory
  • Copper
    Satisfactory
  • Ferritic Steel
    Satisfactory
  • Stainless steel
    Satisfactory
  • Zinc
    Satisfactory
  • Titanium
    no data

Plastics

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
    risk of permeation
  • Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinyl chloride
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polycarbonate
    no data
  • Polyamide
    Satisfactory
  • Polypropylene
    Satisfactory
    risk of permeation

Elastomers

  • Buthyl (isobutene- isoprene) rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Chloroprene
    Satisfactory
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
    Satisfactory
  • Silicon
    Satisfactory
    risk of permeation
  • Perfluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Fluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Neoprene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyurethane
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene-Propylene
    Satisfactory

Lubricants

  • Hydrocarbon based lubricant
    Satisfactory
  • Fluorocarbon based lubricant
    Satisfactory

Materials compatibility

Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.

D2
Deuterium

Learn More

General information

More information

Deuterium was discovered spectroscopically in 1931 by Harold Clayton Urey, which earned him the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1934. Deuterium, or “heavy hydrogen”, is the isotope of hydrogen of atomic weight 2.