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n-Butane
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n-Butane
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C4H10
n-Butane

Physical Properties

Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves

  • General properties
  • Solid phase
  • Liquid Phase
  • Gas Phase
(P)
log(P)
Download
  • Molecular weight
    58.122
    g/mol
  • Content in air
    /

Critical Point

  • Temperature
    151.98
    °C
    305.564 °F 425.13 K
  • Pressure
    37.96
    bar
    3.796E6 pa 550.563 lbf/in2 37.4636 Atm 3796 Kpa 2.8472E4 mmHg
  • Density
    228
    kg/m³
    14.2335 lb/ft³

Triple Point

  • Temperature
    - 138.26
    °C
    - 216.868 °F 134.89 K
  • Pressure
    6.736E-6
    bar
    6.736E-1 pa 9.7697E-5 lbf/in2 6.6479E-6 Atm 6.736E-4 Kpa 5.0524E-3 mmHg
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Melting point
    - 138.29
    °C
    - 216.922 °F 134.86 K
  • Latent heat of fusion (at melting point)
    80.193
    kJ/kg
    34.4999 Btu/lb 19.1666 kcal/kg
  • Solid density
    /
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Liquid density
    601.26
    kg/m³
    37.5353 lb/ft³
  • Boiling point
    - 0.49
    °C
    31.118 °F 272.66 K
  • Latent heat of vaporization (at boiling point)
    385.71
    kJ/kg
    165.9367 Btu/lb 92.1869 kcal/kg
Pressure1.013barTemperature
  • Compressibility factor Z
    9.5911E-1
    9.6616E-1
    9.6996E-1
  • Cp/Cv ratio γ
    1.1188
    1.1102
    1.1052
  • Dynamic viscosity
    6.769E-5
    Po
    6.769 µPa.s 6.769E-6 PA.S 4.5486E-6 lb/ft/s
    7.1524E-5
    Po
    7.1524 µPa.s 7.1524E-6 PA.S 4.8062E-6 lb/ft/s
    7.4054E-5
    Po
    7.4054 µPa.s 7.4054E-6 PA.S 4.9762E-6 lb/ft/s
  • Gas density at boiling point
    2.709
    kg/m³
    1.6912E-1 lb/ft³
    2.709
    kg/m³
    1.6912E-1 lb/ft³
    2.709
    kg/m³
    1.6912E-1 lb/ft³
  • Gas density
    2.703
    kg/m³
    1.6874E-1 lb/ft³
    2.5436
    kg/m³
    1.5879E-1 lb/ft³
    2.4487
    kg/m³
    1.5287E-1 lb/ft³
  • Heat capacity at constant pressure Cp
    1.6426
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.9259E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1642.6 J/kg∙K 3.9259E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.6944
    kJ/(kg.K)
    4.0497E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1694.4 J/kg∙K 4.0497E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.7317
    kJ/(kg.K)
    4.1389E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1731.7 J/kg∙K 4.1389E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Heat capacity at constant volume Cv
    1.4682
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.5091E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1468.2 J/kg∙K 3.5091E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.5263
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.6479E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1526.3 J/kg∙K 3.6479E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.5668
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.7447E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1566.8 J/kg∙K 3.7447E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Liquid (at boiling point)/gas equivalent
    222.44
    mol/mol
    236.38
    mol/mol
    245.54
    mol/mol
  • Solubility in water
    /
    3.274E-2
    mol/mol
    2.244E-2
    mol/mol
  • Specific gravity
    2.08
    2.08
    2.08
  • Specific volume
    0.37
    m³/kg
    5.9268 ft³/lb
    3.931E-1
    m³/kg
    6.2969 ft³/lb
    4.084E-1
    m³/kg
    6.5419 ft³/lb
  • Thermal conductivity
    14.189
    mW/m∙K
    8.2037E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.2209E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.3913E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.4189E-2 W/(m∙K)
    15.59
    mW/m∙K
    9.0137E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.3414E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.7261E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.559E-2 W/(m∙K)
    16.564
    mW/m∙K
    9.5769E-3 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.4252E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 3.9589E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 1.6564E-2 W/(m∙K)
  • Vapor pressure
    1.0339
    bar
    1.0339E5 pa 14.9954 lbf/in2 1.0204 Atm 103.39 Kpa 775.4909 mmHg
    1.7644
    bar
    1.7644E5 pa 25.5904 lbf/in2 1.7413 Atm 176.44 Kpa 1323.4125 mmHg
    2.4368
    bar
    2.4368E5 pa 35.3428 lbf/in2 2.4049 Atm 243.68 Kpa 1827.7554 mmHg
C4H10
n-Butane

Liquid / Gas Volumes

Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass

Liquid Phase

At boiling point at 1.013 bar

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)

Gas Phase

at 1.013 bar and boiling point

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)
C4H10
n-Butane

Applications

Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare

Laboratories & Research Centers

N-Butane is used in calibration gas mixtures for petrochemical industry, environmental emission monitoring and trace impurity analyzers.

Laboratories & Research Centers

Other

N-Butane is used as a propellant for aerosol production.

C4H10
n-Butane

Safety

Information to safely use this molecule

  • Major hazards
  • Material compatibility
  • GHS02
    Flammable

Autoignition Temperature in Air at Patm and Flammability Limits in Air at Patm and 293.15 K (except if the temperature is indicated)

  • Europe (according to EN1839 for Limits and EN 14522 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      392
      °C
      737.6 °F 665.15 K
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      1.4
      vol/%
      1.4E4 ppm 1.4E4 ppm 1.4E-2 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      9.4
      vol/%
      9.4E4 ppm 9.4E4 ppm 9.4E-2 vol/vol
  • US (according to NFPA for Limits and ASTM E659 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      287
      °C
      548.6 °F 560.15 K
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      1.9
      vol/%
      1.9E4 ppm 1.9E4 ppm 1.9E-2 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      8.5
      vol/%
      8.5E4 ppm 8.5E4 ppm 8.5E-2 vol/vol

Odor

Faintly disagreeable

Metals

  • Aluminium
    Satisfactory
  • Brass
    Satisfactory
  • Monel
    Satisfactory
  • Copper
    Satisfactory
  • Ferritic Steel
    Satisfactory
  • Stainless steel
    Satisfactory
  • Zinc
    Satisfactory
  • Titanium
    no data

Plastics

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinyl chloride
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polycarbonate
    Not recommended
  • Polyamide
    Satisfactory
  • Polypropylene
    Satisfactory

Elastomers

  • Buthyl (isobutene- isoprene) rubber
    Not recommended
    significant swelling
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Chloroprene
    Satisfactory
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
    Satisfactory
  • Silicon
    Not recommended
    significant swelling and modification of the properties of the material
  • Perfluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Fluoroelastomers
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Neoprene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyurethane
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene-Propylene
    Not recommended
    significant swelling and modification of the properties of the material

Lubricants

  • Hydrocarbon based lubricant
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Fluorocarbon based lubricant
    Satisfactory

Materials compatibility

Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.

C4H10
n-Butane

Learn More

General information

More information

n-Butane is one of the structural isomers of Butane, an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. The name butane comes from the roots "but-" from "butyric acid". Butane is mainly used as a fuel for domestic use (gas stove, water heater) and for extras (heating). n-Butane is prepared by pressurized distillation of liquefied petroleum gas or by purification of natural gas. It is solvable in aclohol and ether but not so much in water. Mostly inert, it needs a catalyst to participate in chimical reactions, except for combustion with dioxygen. Butanes are highly flammable, colorless, easily liquefied gases.