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Ammonia
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Ammonia
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NH3
Ammonia

Physical Properties

Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves

  • General properties
  • Solid phase
  • Liquid Phase
  • Gas Phase
(P)
log(P)
Download
  • Molecular weight
    17.03
    g/mol
  • Content in air
    /

Critical Point

  • Temperature
    132.25
    °C
    270.05 °F 405.4 K
  • Pressure
    113.33
    bar
    1.1333E7 pa 1643.712 lbf/in2 111.848 Atm 1.1333E4 Kpa 8.5005E4 mmHg
  • Density
    225
    kg/m³
    14.0463 lb/ft³

Triple Point

  • Temperature
    - 77.66
    °C
    - 107.788 °F 195.49 K
  • Pressure
    6.1111E-2
    bar
    6111.09 pa 8.8634E-1 lbf/in2 6.0312E-2 Atm 6.1111 Kpa 45.8371 mmHg
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Melting point
    - 77.74
    °C
    - 107.932 °F 195.41 K
  • Latent heat of fusion (at melting point)
    332.17
    kJ/kg
    142.9032 Btu/lb 79.3905 kcal/kg
  • Solid density
    /
Pressure 1.013 bar
  • Liquid density
    681.97
    kg/m³
    42.5739 lb/ft³
  • Boiling point
    - 33.33
    °C
    - 27.994 °F 239.82 K
  • Latent heat of vaporization (at boiling point)
    1369.5
    kJ/kg
    589.1742 Btu/lb 327.3184 kcal/kg
Pressure1.013barTemperature
  • Compressibility factor Z
    9.8487E-1
    9.8789E-1
    9.8946E-1
  • Cp/Cv ratio γ
    1.3272
    1.3203
    1.316
  • Dynamic viscosity
    9.1931E-5
    Po
    9.1931 µPa.s 9.1931E-6 PA.S 6.1775E-6 lb/ft/s
    9.7289E-5
    Po
    9.7289 µPa.s 9.7289E-6 PA.S 6.5375E-6 lb/ft/s
    1.0093E-4
    Po
    10.093 µPa.s 1.0093E-5 PA.S 6.7822E-6 lb/ft/s
  • Gas density at boiling point
    8.89E-1
    kg/m³
    5.5498E-2 lb/ft³
    8.89E-1
    kg/m³
    5.5498E-2 lb/ft³
    8.89E-1
    kg/m³
    5.5498E-2 lb/ft³
  • Gas density
    7.713E-1
    kg/m³
    4.8151E-2 lb/ft³
    7.289E-1
    kg/m³
    4.5504E-2 lb/ft³
    7.033E-1
    kg/m³
    4.3905E-2 lb/ft³
  • Heat capacity at constant pressure Cp
    2.1795
    kJ/(kg.K)
    5.2092E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 2179.507 J/kg∙K 5.2092E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    2.1662
    kJ/(kg.K)
    5.1773E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 2166.177 J/kg∙K 5.1773E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    2.1645
    kJ/(kg.K)
    5.1732E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 2164.474 J/kg∙K 5.1732E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Heat capacity at constant volume Cv
    1.6421
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.9247E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1642.102 J/kg∙K 3.9247E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.6407
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.9214E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1640.693 J/kg∙K 3.9214E-1 kcal/kg∙K
    1.6448
    kJ/(kg.K)
    3.9312E-1 BTU/lb∙°F 1644.803 J/kg∙K 3.9312E-1 kcal/kg∙K
  • Liquid (at boiling point)/gas equivalent
    884.19
    mol/mol
    935.62
    mol/mol
    969.62
    mol/mol
  • Solubility in water
    /
    /
    /
  • Specific gravity
    0.6
    0.6
    0.6
  • Specific volume
    1.2965
    m³/kg
    20.7679 ft³/lb
    1.3719
    m³/kg
    21.9757 ft³/lb
    1.4218
    m³/kg
    22.775 ft³/lb
  • Thermal conductivity
    22.916
    mW/m∙K
    1.3249E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 1.9717E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 5.4771E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 2.2916E-2 W/(m∙K)
    24.073
    mW/m∙K
    1.3918E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 2.0713E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 5.7536E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 2.4073E-2 W/(m∙K)
    24.934
    mW/m∙K
    1.4416E-2 Btu/ft/h/°F 2.1454E-1 cal/hour∙cm∙°C 5.9594E-5 cal/s∙cm∙°C 2.4934E-2 W/(m∙K)
  • Vapor pressure
    4.2861
    bar
    4.2861E5 pa 62.1646 lbf/in2 4.2301 Atm 428.61 Kpa 3214.8483 mmHg
    7.2624
    bar
    7.2624E5 pa 105.3322 lbf/in2 7.1674 Atm 726.24 Kpa 5447.263 mmHg
    9.9963
    bar
    9.9963E5 pa 144.984 lbf/in2 9.8656 Atm 999.63 Kpa 7497.8623 mmHg
NH3
Ammonia

Liquid / Gas Volumes

Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass

Liquid Phase

At boiling point at 1.013 bar

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)

Gas Phase

at 1.013 bar and boiling point

m3(Volume)
kg(Mass)
NH3
Ammonia

Applications

Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare

Aeronautics

Ammonia is used for heat treatment.

Aeronautics

Automotive

Ammonia is used for heat treatment.

Automotive

Semiconductors

Ammonia takes part of deposit silicon nitride by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) in semiconductor and advanced materials manufacturing.

Semiconductors

Waste & Water management

Ammonia is used in heat treatment. It replaces chlorofluorocarbons as refrigerating fluid.

Waste & Water management

Laboratories & Research Centers

Ammonia is used in calibration gas mixtures for petrochemical industry, environmental emission monitoring, industrial hygiene monitors and trace impurity analyzers.

Laboratories & Research Centers

Metal fabrication

Ammonia is used for heat treatment.

Metal fabrication
NH3
Ammonia

Safety

Information to safely use this molecule

  • Major hazards
  • Material compatibility
  • GHS02
    Flammable

Autoignition Temperature in Air at Patm and Flammability Limits in Air at Patm and 293.15 K (except if the temperature is indicated)

  • Europe (according to EN1839 for Limits and EN 14522 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      630
      °C
      1166 °F 903.15 K
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      14
      vol/%
      1.4E5 ppm 1.4E5 ppm 0.14 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      32.5
      vol/%
      3.25E5 ppm 3.25E5 ppm 3.25E-1 vol/vol
  • US (according to NFPA for Limits and ASTM E659 for autoignition temperature)

    • Auto-ignition temperature
      651
      °C
      1203.8 °F 924.15 K
    • Flash point
      /
    • Lower flammability limit
      15
      vol/%
      1.5E5 ppm 1.5E5 ppm 0.15 vol/vol
    • Upper flammability limit
      28
      vol/%
      2.8E5 ppm 2.8E5 ppm 0.28 vol/vol

Threshold of toxicity

  • VME
    10
    ppm
    or 7
    mg/m3
  • VLE
    20
    ppm
    or 14
    mg/m3
  • ILV-8h
    20
    ppm
    or 14
    mg/m3
  • ILV 15mn
    50
    ppm
    or 36
    mg/m3
  • TLV-TWA (USA)
    25
    ppm
    25 ppm 2.5E-3 vol/% 2.5E-5 vol/vol
  • TLV-STEL (USA)
    35
    ppm
    35 ppm 3.5E-3 vol/% 3.5E-5 vol/vol

Odor

Pungent and irritating

Metals

  • Aluminium
    Satisfactory
  • Brass
    Not recommended
  • Monel
    Satisfactory
  • Copper
    Not recommended
  • Ferritic Steel
    Satisfactory
  • Stainless steel
    Satisfactory
  • Zinc
    Not recommended
  • Titanium
    no data

Plastics

  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polychlorotrifluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyvinylidene fluoride
    Not recommended
  • Polyvinyl chloride
    Satisfactory
  • Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene
    Satisfactory
  • Polycarbonate
    Not recommended
  • Polyamide
    Satisfactory
  • Polypropylene
    Satisfactory

Elastomers

  • Buthyl (isobutene- isoprene) rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Nitrile rubber
    Acceptable
    significant loss of mass
  • Chloroprene
    no data
  • Chlorofluorocarbons
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Silicon
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Perfluoroelastomers
    no data
  • Fluoroelastomers
    Not recommended
  • Nitrile rubber
    Satisfactory
  • Neoprene
    Satisfactory
  • Polyurethane
    Not recommended
  • Ethylene-Propylene
    Satisfactory

Lubricants

  • Hydrocarbon based lubricant
    Not recommended
    significant loss of mass
  • Fluorocarbon based lubricant
    Satisfactory

Materials compatibility

Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.

NH3
Ammonia

Learn More

General information

More information

Gaseous ammonia was first isolated by Joseph Priestley in 1774 and was termed by him "alkaline air". Eleven years later, in 1785, Claude Louis Berthollet ascertained its composition.