Under solid (grey), liquid (blue) and vapor states (white) along the equilibrium curves
Calculate a liquid or gas volume or a mass
At boiling point at 1.013 bar
in standard conditions (1,013 bar, 15°C)
Examples of uses of this molecule in Industry and Healthcare
Nitrogen is used for heat treatment, welding or laser cutting. Nitrogen-filled tires have an increased lifetime.Aeronautics
Nitrogen is used for heat treatment, welding or laser cutting. It also used to produce car pieces with gas assisted injection moulding process. Nitrogen-filled tires have an increased lifetime.Automotive
Nitrogen is used directly in chemical process as carrier gas, fluidisation agent or for temperature control and catalyst preparation. It also takes part in several applications in a petrochemical site: for blanketing, drying, purging, stirring, etc.Chemicals
Nitrogen is used to create an inert atmosphere to avoid oxidation during wave soldering or reflow soldering process. Nitrogen is used as a carrier gas to protect the semiconductors from impurities and oxidation during production and welding. It provides an inert atmosphere during equipment production and during wafer transportation. It enables the dilution of by-products emitted during semiconductor fabrication until a safe level is reached. Nitrogen can also be used to chill wafers without contamination after a treatment.Electronic components
Nitrogen is used to chill, freeze or control temperature of food products. It allows to control temperature during transportation and distribution with indirect liquid nitrogen injection. Nitrogen preserves and protects foods with Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) to minimize oxidation, micro-organism growth or package collapse. It is also used to protect liquid foods from oxidation through inerting, pressure transfer and deoxigenation.Food
Combined with hydrogen, nitrogen creates a reductive atmosphere over the tin bath in glass production process.Glass
Medical device: nitrogen is used for cryo-dermatology and cryo-preservation. It is also a component of inhaled gaseous mixtures for pulmonary function test.Hospital care
Nitrogen is a carrier gas in gas chromatography for various industrial and hospital analyses and quality control. It is also a balance gas of the calibration gas mixtures for environmental monitoring systems and industrial hygiene gas mixtures. Nitrogen is used to purge, dry or blanket analyzers or chemical reactors (under gaseous state or at low temperature liquid state).Laboratories & Research Centers
Nitrogen is used for heat treatment and laser cutting.Metal fabrication
Nitrogen is used for inerting and stirring in many applications.Metal
For storage tanks and pipeline, nitrogen protects products and facilities (blanketing and inerting). It is also used in operations of snubbing/pigging, pipeline purging, cleanouts and leak test. For overbalanced drilling, nitrogen is used for gas lifting, fracking or fracturing.Oil & Gas
Nitrogen is used in heat treatment of various metals. It is a component of the mixtures used in carbon dioxide lasers. It is also used for pneumatic transportation of powdered flammable materials (charcoal).
Nitrogen is used for inerting, cryo-grinding, lyophilisation, drying, liquid phase transfer of products or synthesis intermediates. It is also used for cryo-condensation of waste gases and low temperature storage.Pharma & Biotech
Information to safely use this molecule
Asphyxiant in high concentrations. Nitrogen, when in liquid or vapor state at cryogenic temperature can cause cryogenic burns on skin due to cold, which are very similar to a thermal burn.
Recommendations : Air Liquide has gathered data on the compatibility of gases with materials to assist you in evaluating which materials to use for a gas system. Although the information has been compiled from what Air Liquide believes are reliable sources (International Standards: Compatibility of cylinder and valve materials with gas content; Part 1- Metallic materials: ISO11114-1 (March 2012), Part 2 - Non-metallic materials: ISO11114-2 (April 2013), it must be used with extreme caution and engineering judgement. No raw data such as these can cover all conditions of concentration, temperature, humidity, impurities and aeration. It is therefore recommended that this table is only used to identify possible materials for applications at high pressure and ambient temperature. Extensive investigation and testing under the specific conditions of use need to be carried out to validate a material selection for a given application. Contact the regional Air Liquide team for expertise service.
Nitrogen was discovered in 1772 by Daniel Rutherford who called it "noxious air" or "fixed air". Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier isolated it in 1786. The name nitrogen comes from Latin "nitrogenium", where "nitrum" (from Greek nitron) means "saltpetre", and "genes" means "forming". Nitrogen is an inert gas with many industrial applications. It is liquefied by cooling at -320.8 °F (-196 °C/77.15 K). It is mainly found in the atmosphere, where it accounts for 78 % by volume of the air we breath. But nitrogen is also found in the Earth's crust (to a limited extent: in the form of nitrates, etc.), in organic form (in the living or dead plants and organisms), in mineral form (ammonia), thus contributing to soil fertility. In gaseous form, nitrogen is a neutral and colorless gas.